Jacques-Charles Oudry was the son of the famous animal and still life painter, Jean-Baptiste Oudry (1686-1755). He learned painting from his father and was also a pupil of Nicolas Largillierre (1656-1746). He attended the Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1748, and exhibited his work at the Paris Salon until 1761.
He settled for some time in Brussels where he worked for Prince Charles of Lorraine. His style and the choice of subjects treated in his painting are directly inspired by his father's work.